Japanese lessons [EN]

Japanese everyday! #oneWord - one word with cute picture (by aringoaday.com) #translateWord - translate word from picture #grammar - grammar rules #vocabulary #listening #reading #exercise #notes
Japanese lessons [EN]

#vocabulary. ここ そこ あそこ どこ. koko, soku, asoko, and doko are words for places.

ここ - here, near me
そこ - there, near you
あそこ - over there
どこ - where
You can ask far directions by saying:
すみません、 ゆうびんきょく は どこ です か。
Sumimasen, yuubinkyoku wa doko desu ka. - Execuse me, where is the post office?
If you are close by, you can point toword the post office and say:
(ゆうびんきょく は) あそこです。
(Yuubinkyoku wa) asoko desu. - (The post office is) right over there.
Japanese lessons [EN]

だれの noun. #grammar. We learned how to say things like Mearii san no denwa bangoo (Mary's phone number) and Takeshi san no okaasan (Takeshi's mother).

We now learn how to ask who something belongs to. The question word for "who" is dare, and for "whose," we simply add the particle no.
これ は だれ の かばん です か。
Kore wa dare no kaban desu ka. - Whose bag is this?
それ は スー さん の かばん です。
Sore wa Suu san no kaban desu. - That is Sue's bag.
Japanese lessons [EN]

#grammar. この、その、あの、どの+noun. kono, sono, ano, dono

If you want to be slightly more specific than kore, sore, are you can use kono, sono, ano together with a noun (Note that here the re series must always stand alone while the no series must always be followed by a noun). Thus if you know the item in your hand is a watch (tokee) instead of:
Kore wa ikura desu ka — How much is this?
you can say:
Kono tokee wa ikura desu ka — How much is this watch
Similarly, if you are talking about a watch that is held by the person you are talking to, you can say:
Sono tokee wa sanzen en desu — That watch is 3,000 yen
And if the watch is far from both the speaker and the listener, you can say:
Ano tokee wa sanzengohyaku en desu — That watch over there is 3,500 yen.
If you already know that one of several watches is 3,500 yen but do not know which, you can say:
Dono tokee ga sanzengohyaku en desu ka — Which watch is 3,500 yen.
Since dono is a question word, just like dore discussed above, we cannot use the particle wa with it; we must use ga.
Japanese lessons [EN]

#grammar. kore, sore, are dore. これ それ あれ どれ

When you want to talk about things you do not know the name of, you can use such expressions as kore, sore, are, and dore. Kore refers to something close to the speaker; sore refers to something close to the person you’re talking to; are refers to an object that is neither close to the speaker or the listener.
あれはわたしのペンです (That is my pen over there.)
are wa watashi no pen desu.
これはいくらですか?(How much is this?)
kore wa ikura desu ka.
それはさんぜんえんです。 (That is 3,000 yen.)
sore wa sanzen en desu.
Dore means can be used to express “which.” Question words like dore and nani cannot be followed by the particle wa. Instead, they must be followed by the particle ga.
どれがあなたのペンですか。(Which one is your pen?)
dore ga anata no pen desu ka.
Japanese lessons [EN]

#Notes #Expressions. 🔸おのまえは? Onamae wa? What is (your) name?

🔸どこからきなしたか。Doko kara kamashita ka.
Where do you come from?
🔸しごとはなんですか。 Shigoto wa nan desu ka.
What is (your) occupation?
🔸なんさいですか。 Nansai desu ka.
How old are (you)?
🔸せんもんはなんですか。Senmon wa nan desu ka.
What is (your) major?
Japanese lessons [EN]

#Notes. 🔸Pronunciation of は. The particle は is pronounced "wa," not "ha." It should be written with は.

All other instances of " wa" are written with わ.
Watashi no denwa bangoo wa san nana no hachi roku roku nana desu.
My telephone number is 37-8667
There are a few exceptions such as konnichiwa (good afternoon) and konbanwa (good evening). They are usually written with は: こんいちは and  こんばんは
🔸Giving one's telephone number
The particle no is usually placed in between the local exchange code and the last four digits. Therefore, the number 012-345-6789 is zero ichi ni, san yon go no, roku nana hachi kyuu.
🔸Referring to the person you are talking to
The word for "you," anata, is not very commonly used in Japanese. Instead, we use the name and a title like san and sensee to refer to the person you are talking to. Therefore, a sentence like "Ms. Hart, are you Swedish?" should be:
ハートさんは スウェーデンじんですか。
Haato san wa sueedenjin desu ka.
instead of
ハートさん, あなたはスウェーデンじんですか。
Haato san, anata wa sueedenjin desu ka.
🔸Japanese names
When Japanese give their name, they say their family name first and given name last. Usually, they don't have middle names. When they introduce themselves, they often say only their family name. Here are some typical Japanese names:
Family name:
さとう Satoo
すずき Suzuki
たかはし Takahashi
Given name:
ひとし Hiroshi
いちろう Ichiroo
けんじ Kenji
ゆうこ Yuuko
めぐみ Megumi
くみこ Kumiko
Japanese lessons [EN]

#Notes. 🔸あの. Ano indicates that you have some reservations about saying what you are going to say next.

You may be worried about interrupting something someone is currently doing, or sounding rude and impolite for asking personal questions, for example.
Both Hai and Ee means "yes" in response to yes-no questions. Compared to Hai, Ee is more conversational and relaxed. In more formal situations, Un is used. Hai is also used to respond to a knock at the door or to the calling of one's name, meaning "Here." (Ee cannot be replaced in this case.)
Soo desu ka acknowledges that you have understood what was just said. "Is that so?" or "I see."
San is placed after a name as a generic title. It goes both with a given name and a family name. Children are referred to as Chan and boys in particular as Kun, rather than San. Professors and doctors are usually referred to with referred to with the title Sensei. San and other title words are never used in reference to oneself
Japanese lessons [EN]

#grammar. noun1 の noun2. No is a particle that connects two nouns.

The phrase Toozai daigaku no gakusee means "(a) student at Tozai University." The second noun gakusee provides the main idea (being a student) and the first one Toozai daigaku makes it more specific (not a high school, but a college student). No is very versatile. In the first example below, it acts like the possessive ("x's") in English, but that is not the only role no can play. See how it connects two nouns in the following examples.
たけしさんおでんわばんごう。 Takeshi san no denwa bangoo
Takeshi's phone number
だいがくのせんせい。 daigaku no sensee
a college professor
にほんごのがくせい。 nihongo no gakusee
a student of the Japanese language
にほんのだいがく。 nihon no daigaku
a college in Japan
Observe that in the first two examples, the English and Japanese words are arranged in the same order, while in the last two, they are in the opposite order. Japanese seems to be more consistent in arranging ideas here; the main idea always comes at the end, with any further description placed before it.
A phrase of the form "noun1 no noun2" acts more or less like one big noun. You can put it wherever you can put a noun, as in the following example:
Takeshi san no okaasan wa kooko no sensee desu
Takeshi's mother is a high school teacher
Japanese lessons [EN]

#grammar. Question Sentences. It is very easy to form questions in Japanese.

Basically, all you need to do is add ka at the end of a statement.
りゅうがくせいです。 ryuugakusee desu.
(I am) an international student
りゅうがくせいですか。ryuugakusee desu ka
(Are you) an international student?
It is not customary to write a question mark at the end of a question sentence in Japanese.
The above sentence, Ryuugakusee desu ka, is a "yes/no question. Question sentences may also contain a "question word" like nun (what).
せんもんはなんですか。 Senmon wa nan desu ka.
What is your major?
(せんもんは)えいごです。 Senmon wa eego desu.
(My major) is English.
いまなんじですか。 Ima nanji desu ka.
What time is it?
(いま)かじです。 (Ima) kuji desu
It is nine o'clock
The Japanese question word for "what" has two pronunciations: nan and nani. Nan is used immediately before desu or before a "counter" like ji (o'clock). The other form, nani, is used before a particle.
Nani is also used in the combination nanijin (person of what nationality).
Japanese lessons [EN]

ぶんぱう #grammar (2). X は Y です. What are we to do, then, when it is not clear what is being talked about?

To make explicit what we are talking about, we can say:
(...) は にほんごです。 wa nihongo desu
(...) is the Japanese language
Where (...) stands for the thing that is talked about, or the "topic," which is later in
the sentence identified as nihongo.
せんもんはにほんごです。 Senmon wa nihongo desu.
(My) major is the Japanese language.
Similarly, one can use the pattern X wa Y desu to identify a person or a thing X as item Y.
X is Y. As for X, it is Y.
わたしは スー・キムです。 Watashi wa Suu Kimu desu
I am Sue Kim
やましたさんは せんせいです。Yamashita san wa sensee desu.
Mr. Yamashita is a teacher.
メアリーさんは アメリカじんです。 Mearii san wa amerikajin desu.
Mary is an American.
✔️Wa is a member of the class of words called "particles." Particles attach themselves to phrases and indicate how the phrases relate to the rest of the sentence.