All psychology
@psychologynews44

We post fun facts about psychology and psychological phenomenon...👨🏻‍🏫👨🏻‍🔬
142  
All psychology
2019-04-02 

💊Histamine. Histamine is an excitatory neurotransmitter produced by basophils and is found in high concentrations in the blood.

It is involved primarily in the inflammatory responses, as well as a range of other functions such as vasodilation, and regulation of the immune response to foreign bodies. For example, when allergens are introduced into the bloodstream, histamine assists in the fight against these microorganisms causing itching of the skin or irritations of the throat, nose and or lungs. It also plays a role in the wake/sleep cycle, by increasing wakefulness.
@psychologynews44
All psychology
2019-04-02 

💊Acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter occurring throughout the nervous system and is the most well understood and studied.

Acetylcholine has many functions ranging from the stimulation of muscles, including the muscles of the gastrointestinal system to vital organs. It is also found in sensory neurons and in the autonomic nervous system and has a part in scheduling the “dream state” while an individual is fast asleep. Acetylcholine plays a vital role in the normal functioning of muscles. For example, the plant poisons, curare, and hemlock cause paralysis of muscles by blocking the acetylcholine receptor sites of myocytes. The well-known poison botulin works by preventing the vesicles in the axon ending from releasing acetylcholine, thus leading to paralysis of the effector muscle.
💊Norepinephrine
Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is an excitatory neurotransmitter. It acts to increase the alertness of the nervous system as well as to stimulate the processes in the body. For example, it is very important in the endogenous production of epinephrine. Norepinephrine has been implicated in mood disorders such as anxiety, in which case its concentration in the body is abnormally high. Alternatively, an abnormally low concentration of it may lead to an impaired sleep cycle.
💊Epinephrine
Also known as adrenaline, epinephrine is an excitatory neurotransmitter produced by the adrenal glands and released into the bloodstream. It prepares the body for the fight or flight reaction. That means that when a person is highly stimulated (fear, anger etc), extra amounts of epinephrine are released into the bloodstream. This release of epinephrine, increases the heart rate, the blood pressure and the glucose production from the liver (glycogenolysis). In this way, the nervous and the endocrine system prepare the body for dangerous and extreme situations.
💊Dopamine
Dopamine is considered a special type of neurotransmitter because its effects are both excitatory and inhibitory. It is strongly associated with the reward mechanisms in the brain, and drugs such as cocaine, opium, heroin, and alcohol can temporarily increase its levels in the blood, leading to abnormal firing of nerve cells, which may sometimes manifest as intoxication, or several manners of consciousness/focus issues (such as not remembering where we put our keys, or forgetting what a paragraph said when we have just finished reading it, or simply daydreaming and not being able to stay on task). However, an appropriate secretion of dopamine in the bloodstream plays a role in the motivation or desire to complete a task.
💊GABA
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. An abnormally low secretion of GABA may cause conditions like anxiety. Because it is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA acts as a brake to the excitatory neurotransmitters, and thus when it is abnormally low this can lead to anxiety. It is widely distributed in the brain and plays a principal role in reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system.
💊Glutamate
Glutamate is another neurotransmitter with an excitatory effect and usually ensures homeostasis with the effects of GABA. excessive levels of it can be toxic to the nerve cells and may lead to conditions like stroke.
💊Serotonin
Serotonin is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that has been found to be intimately involved in emotion and mood. Adequate amounts of serotonin are necessary for a stable mood, and also to balance any excessive excitatory neurotransmitter effects in the brain. Like norepinephrine, serotonin also regulates many processes in the body, such as carbohydrate cravings, the sleep cycle, pain control, and the digestion of food. An insufficient secretion of serotonin may result in decreased immune system function, as well as a range of emotional disorders like depression, anger control problems, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and even suicidal tendencies.
@psychologynews44
All psychology
2019-04-02 

Neurotransmitters: Classification;. 📍Neurotransmitters can be classified as either excitatory or inhibitory.

Excitatory neurotransmitters function to activate receptors on the postsynaptic membrane and enhance the effects of the action potential, while inhibitory neurotransmitters function in a reverse mechanism.
#psychologynews44
All psychology
2018-11-19 

New research suggests that even light workouts can improve brain function.

Indeed, modest yoga exercises or tai chi may help with memory tasks such as remembering where you left the keys.
In the study, investigators at the University of California, Irvine and Japan’s University of Tsukuba found that even very light workouts can increase the connectivity between parts of the brain responsible for memory formation and storage.
“The hippocampus is critical for the creation of new memories; it’s one of the first regions of the brain to deteriorate as we get older — and much more severely in Alzheimer’s disease,” said project co-leader Dr. Michael Yassa, a UCI professor. “Improving the function of the hippocampus holds much promise for improving memory in everyday settings.”
The neuroscientists found that the level of heightened connectivity predicted the degree of recall enhancement. Yassa, director of UCI’s Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, said that the new study expands prior research that centered on the way exercise promotes the generation of new brain cells in memory regions.
Specifically, the new study demonstrates a more immediate impact: strengthened communication between memory-focused parts of the brain.
“We don’t discount the possibility that new cells are being born, but that’s a process that takes a bit longer to unfold,” he said. “What we observed is that these 10-minute periods of exercise showed results immediately afterward.”
A little bit of physical activity can go a long way, Yassa stressed.
@psychologynews44
All psychology
2018-11-17 

💢Mild blast forces cause brain pathology and deficits, despite lack of macroscopic damage.

Using a rat model of bTBI, researchers show how even mild exposure to a single blast shock wave is able to induce small but potentially very meaningful pathogenic effects that accumulate with time. These effects, detected at the microscopic level, included microvascular damage, injury to nerve axons and signs of neuroinflammation in various brain regions. Brain function also changed, as shown by impaired short-term synaptic plasticity.
Read more : https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/11/181109155513.htm
@psychologynews44
All psychology
2018-11-17 

💢Mild blast forces cause brain pathology and deficits, despite lack of macroscopic damage.

@psychologynews44
All psychology
2018-11-13 

💢 Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) (Multiple Personality Disorder):

There is a lot of controversy with the definition of the following disorder, but it can be defined as a condition where a person's identity is fragmented into two or more distinct personality states.
Only 2% of the cases are recorded. Possible causes are said to be childhood trauma or induced by therapy.
@psychologynews44
All psychology
2018-11-12 

💢Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five-tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid.
Needs lower down in the hierarchy must be satisfied before individuals can attend to needs higher up. This five-stage model can be divided into deficiency needs and growth needs. The first four levels are often referred to as deficiency needs (D-needs), and the top level is known as growth or being needs (B-needs).
Source : https://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html
@psychologynew44
All psychology
2018-11-04 

💢What are thoughts made of? They’re really just electro-chemical reactions—but the number and complexity of these reactions make them hard to fully understand…

The human brain is composed of about 100 billion nerve cells (neurons) interconnected by trillions of connections, called synapses. On average, each connection transmits about one signal per second. Some specialized connections send up to 1,000 signals per second. “Somehow… that’s producing thought,” says Charles Jennings, director of neurotechnology at the MIT McGovern Institute for Brain Research.
Brain cells communicate with each other through an electrochemical process. Every time you think, learn or communicate, a neuron (brain cell) in your brain sends a nerve impulse down its axon. The axon of one brain cell makes multiple thousands of connections with many thousand other brain cells. A process as simple as this, builds the complexity within us....
@psychologynews44
All psychology
2018-11-01 

❗️Sigmund Freud: Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

He was a physiologist, medical doctor, and father of psychoanalysis, and is generally recognized as one of the most influential and authoritative thinkers of the twentieth century. He was an Austrian neurologist and the co-founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology.
Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind, and a primary assumption of Freudian theory is that the unconscious mind governs behavior to a greater degree than people suspect. Indeed, the goal of psychoanalysis is to make the unconscious conscious.
@psychologynews44
Sources:
💢 https://www.simplypsychology.org/Sigmund-Freud.html
💢 http://www.psychologistanywhereanytime.com/mobile/famous_psychologist_and_psychologists/psychologist_famous_sigmund_freud.htm
💢 https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigmund_Freud